Due to a planned power outage, our services will be reduced today June 15 starting at am PDT until the work is complete. We apologize for the inconvenience. Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo. Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. User icon An illustration of a person's head and chest.
up Log in.
Web icon An illustration of a computer application window Wayback Machine Texts icon An illustration of an open book. Books Video icon An illustration of two cells of a film strip.
Video Audio icon An illustration of an audio speaker. Audio Software icon An illustration of a 3. Software Images icon An illustration of two photographs.
Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses. Full text of " History of the Sikhs vol. By the same author :— 1. History of the Sikhs. History of the Sikhs, Vol. II, Cis-Sutlej, Life and Work of Mohan Lai Kashmiri. Bull Road. Balkriihna for the Seeking married Nidala Pakka Book Shop.
PREFACE From ploughshare to sword, from sword to forts, from forts to fortresses, from fortresses to garrisons, from garrisons to armies, from armies to territories, and from territories to kingdom—these were the stages in the rise of the Sikhs to power.
Before monarchy came into existence the Sikhs had set themselves up as Seeking married Nidala Pakka of the domains they had conquered. Being the sons of a race of leaders and warriors who had devoted all their lives to ciyitinuous warfare, they could not keep still. It was danger which had led them from weakness to strength, from strength to greatness and from greatness to glory. This greatly disappeared' with the death of Ahmad Shah Durrani in They were therefore determined to find a quarrel even amongst themselves if they had no enemy to fight.
Though a victim of civil strife, the Trans-Sutlej Sikhs displayed a noble trait of character in resisting the invader from the north-west single-handed, without receiving any assistance from their brethren of the Cis-Sutlej.
The last Muslim invasion of India took place inand the same year the foundation of Sikh monarchy was laid in the person of Ranjit Singh, whose achievements in political and military spheres have so far remained the highest pride of the Sikhs in particular and of the Panjabis in general. I feel therefore compelled to call a halt to research activities, and re-direct my energies into some other channel.
PanjabB. Lahore, April, Chapter I. Conquest of the Kangra and Jammu Hills Conflict with Shah Zaman, — The Lahore-Campaign, — The Beginning of Sikh Monarchy, Nature and Character op Sikh Administration Social and Economic Life of the People Ill s. Introductory A S we had occasion to observe in another connection, Ahmad Shah Abdali after his discomfiture in returned to Kandahar.
In the Seeking married Nidala Pakka of another attempt made by him in December, S, he could only advance as far as the Chcnab, from where he beat a hasty retreat without achieving anything.
He was not destined to cross the Indus again. The field was thus left open to the Sikhs, and as the subsequent s of this volume will reveal, the Sikhs made full use of the opportunity. They extended their territorial possessions rather rapidly, and succeeded in establishing their jurisdictionover both the plain and the hill portions of the Panjab.
The possessions which the Sikh chiefs held in were as under : 2. Mian Mahmud Khan of Taiwan was his tributary. He wrested Serai Dakhni from Sharf-ud-din of Jullundur.
Nakodar was seized from Munj Rajputs. In this campaign Sujan Singh Badecha was killed by a musket ball. His territories, some of which were also situated on the other side of the Sutlej, yielded nearly eight lakhs a year. Khushhal Singh's ion! In the north the Bcin and Ghurkn were its limits, and the Sutlej bounded it on the south. It contained villages. Taiwan was part of the country occupied by the Munj Seeking married Nidala Pakka and was held by Mian Mahmud Khan nt this time.
The Taiwan tciritory wos shut in on one side by that of the Sardars of Nurmahal who were subordinate to the Ahtuwalia chief and on the other by branches of the Dullcwalia confederacy, and was very circumscribed.
Punjab, i, The title Ghaiba was given to him because he was very clever and he could understand mysterious things. Ghaiba means one who can solve mysteries. His goats were Seeking married Nidala Pakka by a notorious Gujar robber Suleman. Thereupon he left bis village and became a Sikh taking pahal from Gurdial Singh.
Even then he was badly provided with the necessaries of life. Tara Singh offered them his services and showed them a place where they could safely cross the stream. The Sikhs were employed to take their goods, horses and arms across it. Whep they got to the other side they did not think it necessary to return and immediately disappeared with the things they had secured.
Jullundur Settlement Report. Raj Khalsa. Desa Singh possessed forty-five villages in the parganahs of Kauntarpur, Mirthal, Gharota and Surajpur. Natha Singh possessed the territory around Rangar Nangal. The Nahai Misl. Sudh Singh Dodia held Jamkc and Bhopalwala.
The Nabai Misl. The Suharchakia Misl. He also overran the southern part of Rawalpindi district ; but he did not hold it under him.
Punjab, lu Ahlu- walla. In Rai-ka-Kot, a fort built by Rai Ibrahim of Kapurt,hala in the midst of the colonies of Afghans at Vairo- wal to the west of the Beas, was captured by the chief leader of the Dal Khalsa. Leaving Amritsar they halted at Taran Taran. Khem Karan was the second stage where they spent two days. Here they were ed in large s by the Sikhs who were attracted by the possibility of reaping a large booty. Then they dashed upon Kasur.
Hamid Khan and Usman Khan, the two chief leaders of the Afghans, came out to fight. A hand to hand fight continued in the streets. The invaders destroyed Garhi Abdur Rahim Khan, and a lot of booty fell into their hands.
The Afghan chiefs ultimately found resistance useless, and sued for peace. They promised not to slaughter cows, not to maltreat their Hindu subjects and to pay tribute in addition to a fine of four lakhs of rupees. The terms having been accepted the Sikh chiefs granted robes of honour to the Afghan rulers and retired from Kasur.